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Median Heraldic Emblem and Flag Motif

Discovery: This artifact was found via illegal digging in what is routinely described as "northwest Persia," and offered for purchase by an unidentified seller to the Metropolitan Museum in New York in 1953-54. That is all that is known of its provenance.

The dig's location, however, must have been at or near Hamadan. There are a number of compelling reasons to believe so. The style matches other similar items found in excavations in Hamadan--before or after. 

Had this item been dug up far away from Hamadan--a center for licit and illicit trade in archaeological artifacts--it would have been doubtlessly melted down and turned into modern jewelry for sale. The item is quite large and heavy, and makes for a good "melt item" if it could not be sold to those Hamadani art merchants for its higher artistic/historic value. In fact, the said merchants themselves would organize bands of illegal diggers to poke around for such things that could be sold to Western buyers of all types.



Prehistoric Investigation Near Mandali, IRAQ

In the spring of I966 a survey of archaeological sites was begun in the qadha of Mandali, Diyala Liwa, east of Baghdad, and between Mandali and Badra, Kut Liwa, along the foothills bordering the Iranian frontier (Fig. i). The survey was undertaken initially with financial support from the American Philosophical Society and continued in I967 with the assistance of the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation.' It is hoped that ultimately all archaeological sites in the area will be surveyed systematically, but the primary reason for the selection of this particular region was the possibility that it might provide clues towards the solution of a number of prehistoric problems.

Evidence for the World’s earliest Beer and Wine making in Kurdistan

In a correspondence to the prestigious British scientific journal Nature (vol.360, 5 November, 1992, p. 24) Rudolph Michel of Museum Applied Science Center for Archaeology, and Patrick McGovern of University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia and Virginia Badler, Department of Near Eastern Studies, University of Toronto, archaeological and laboratory evidence is provided to prove the oldest existing trace of production of barley beer in the world.

The Tell Nader and Tell Baqrta Project in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq

In October 2010 the University of Athens obtained permission by the Ministry of Municipalities and Tourism of the Kurdistan Regional Government of Iraq (KRG), the General Directorate of Antiquities of Kurdistan and the Directorate of Antiquities of Erbil to conduct excavations in two important archaeological sites: first in Tell Nader, which lies on the outskirts of the city of Erbil and then Tell Baqrta, approximatel

The Sassanian Inscription of Paikuli

The Paikuli inscription is comprised of three parts: introduction, main part, and conclusion. The main part can be divided into three: 1. An account of the events taking place before Narseh and the Iranian dignitaries meet at Paikuli; 2. An account of the events leading to the surrender of Warahrān, King of Sakas, and the punishment of Wahnām; 3. The negotiations between Narseh and the dignitaries regarding the succession to the throne of Iran, leading to Narseh’s acceptance of the Kingship.

Urartian Red Burnished Pottery From Diyarbakir Museum

Urartian Kingdom has not only become known by its organized state structure, advanced architecture, irrigation system, superior quality metal workmanship but also has become known by its red burnished potteries, which imitate metallic pots. Potteries’ pastes, which were given shape at paddle wheels by expert potters, were prepared by using very well sieved clay and sometimes by using additive small piece of sand. Slip, which were usually red and tones of red, were applied before drying in the kiln. The other operation that was realized before the stage of drying in the kiln was burnishing. After a good quality drying, possibly by getting polished with a soft material like leather, their surfaces were provides even and smooth and therefore, there was not any difference in the apparition of the metallic pots.

Assessment of the conservation of the Paikoli Monument

Paikoli Monument(1) was probably formed by a quadrilateral stone wall (average size: 40 x 60 x 40 cm) filled with a concrete mix of river stones and pebble; the binder of the concret e mix is probably calcium bi-hydrated sulphate (gypsum). Every block shows in the upper face two holes about 5 cm wide and about 3 cm deep, certainly used for the insertion of cramps to connect one block to the two adjacent.

Kurdish Currency

The Kurdish national currency KURO inherited its name from a common combined word in Kurdish language. KURO is combined of Kur -which is the international code for Kurdish language, and the bibliographic classification and the letter O which is a common noun maker in Kurdish for example the word, dillo, hezo, wero, nazo, delalo and so on.

Witness to Genocide

by Heather Pringle, Volume 62 Number 1, January/February 2009

Forensic archaeologists uncover evidence of a secret massacre—and help convict Saddam Hussein of crimes against humanity.

In May 1988, a prison guard checked Taymour Abdullah Ahmad's name off a list and directed him to a bus idling in the Popular Army camp in Topzawa, southwest of Kirkuk. The camp was one of Iraq's grimmest prisons.

Fieldwork and Fear in Iraqi Kurdistan

Diane E. King, 2009

Before the Iraqi Baath regime’s ouster in 2003, I intermittently lived and carried out research in the Kurdish-controlled part of Iraq. I often commuted between the towns of Dohuk and Zakho by bus or a taxi shared with other passengers. Each time the bus or taxi passed the junction just north of Dohuk at which one of the roads led to the government-controlled city of Mosul, passengers typically tensed up. In the distance, but within view, lay the last Kurdish checkpoint.

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